Crown-of-Thornes (Acanthaster planci)
The crown-of-thorns starfish is a large starfish with many arms that preys on hard coral. Its name comes from the venomous thorny spines covering its upper surface – meant to resemble the crown of thorns put on Jesus before his crucifiction. This is one of the largest starfish and has a very wide distribution in the Indian and Pacific Oceans at tropical and subtropical latitudes where coral reefs or hard coral communities occur.
The venom of the starfish contains so-called asterosaponins which have detergent-like properties. The brittle spines can perforate the skin of a predator or unwary diver and tissue containing the venom is lodged into the resulting wound. In humans this immediately causes a sharp, stinging pain lasting several hours, with persistent bleeding aided the venom as well as nausea, tissue swelling lasting for a week or more. Breaking of the spines means they become embedded in the tissue where they require surgically removal.
Peppermint Sea Star (Fromia monilis)
The peppermint sea star can grow to a diameter of about 30 centimetres. Its arm tips and the central disc are bright red, while the other parts are paler, forming large plates. The color, plates and other features can be very variable and identification from photographs can be difficult. It feeds on encrusting spongess, detritus and small invertebrates. Occurs in shallow water in rocky environment, at a depth of 0 – 51 m.